Vector Diagnostics




 The world’s first physiological monitoring instrument for BREATHING HABIT ANALYSIS AND LEARNING. 


The CapnoTrainer®, and its new accessory, the CapnoPlus™, operate together as the ultimate tool-instrument for assisting in the identification, evaluation, teaching, and learning of breathing habits, and for examining their effects on mental and physical performance.

The CapnoTrainer® is CO2 analysis hardware and PC software for real-time continuous measurement of
partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2), breathing rate, and breathing pattern characteristics. The instrument is a learning tool for use by counselors, educators, consultants, and learners.

Carbon dioxide concentration in extracellular fluids plays a critical and immediate role in pH regulation, electrolyte balance, hemoglobin chemistry, circulatory physiology, muscle function, and kidney physiology. Deregulation of extracellular CO2 precipitates major physical and psychological symptoms and deficits. Carbon dioxide concentration is precisely regulated by brainstem reflex mechanisms for maintaining proper homeostasis.

Using CO2 analyzers for medical purposes (capnography or capnometry) is for determining the concentration of CO2 gas in blood plasma and other extracellular fluids (Interstitial, lymph, cerebrospinal). They do so by measuring End-tidal CO2 (PetCO2), the CO2 concentration at the end of the breath (tide) which represents the average alveolar CO2 concentration. In healthy people, alveolar CO2 concentration is highly correlated with arterial CO2 concentration. Medical capnography is the use of CO2 analyzers in critical care, surgery, and medical emergency environments where life threatening shifts in blood gases must be continuously monitored and regulated.

Using CO2 analyzers for educational purposes is for identifying and unlearning dysfunctional breathing habits that compromise respiration based on the principles of behavior analysis and behavior modification. Dysfunctional breathing habits, where reflex-regulated CO2 has been compromised, may cause, trigger, exacerbate, and perpetuate a wide range of effects (symptoms and deficits) that are typically mistakenly attributed to other unrelated causes. In fact, the use of CO2 analyzer instrumentation is the only effective technological means to determining if, when, where, and how a learned habit is compromising respiration.


The CapnoTrainer® is a CO2 analyzer used for identifying breathing habits and then unlearning dysfunctional ones and learning new ones.

Breathing is typically understood by most of us as being automatic and reflexive. And, that intentionally manipulating it can be useful for relaxation, improved oxygenation, and meditation. But what is inevitably overlooked is that breathing, like any other “behavior,” can be unconsciously configured as a habit at anytime and anywhere, and usually for not such obvious reasons, e.g., avoidance of pain. These habits, although they somehow serve us, may become dysfunctional when they compromise respiration and other physiology.

Respiration compromised by breathing habits may have profound immediate and long-term effects that trigger, exacerbate, perpetuate, and/or cause a wide variety of emotional (anxiety, anger), cognitive (attention, learning), behavioral (public speaking, test taking), and physical (pain, asthma) changes that may seriously impact health and performance.

Breathing habits point to the most fundamental, practical, and profound factors that account for:(1) the far-reaching effects of dysfunctional breathing habits (e.g., deregulated plasma pH, chronic contraction of muscles in the jaw), as well as for (2) the surprising benefits of self-regulatory breathing habits (such as, improved cerebral blood flow for improved attention, learning, and performance).

Breathing regulates body acid-base balance, specifically the pH of extracellular fluids, that is, blood plasma, interstitial fluids (that surround all body cells), lymph, and cerebrospinal fluids. It does so from moment to moment, breath to breath. It controls pH by regulating carbon dioxide concentration within very specific limits. Hence, breathing plays a central role in delivery and utilization of oxygen (through its effect on hemoglobin), electrolyte balance, circulatory physiology (blood flow), acid buffering (like lactic acid), kidney function (bicarbonate and sodium), and muscle function (smooth and skeletal).

Breathing is optimal when respiratory chemistry is regulated by reflexes,regardless of whether or not one is relaxed or stressed, excited or bored, active or inactive, working or playing, focused or distracted. When these reflexes are disturbed by breathing habits, unbalanced extracellular acid-base chemistry (pH) is the result, along with symptoms and deficits usually misinterpreted and mistakenly attributed to unrelated”causes.”

The CapnoTrainer®is a powerful tool that provides a direct means to determining whether or not and if, when, where, and how a dysfunctional habit may be present.